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中高考被动语态

时间:2011-11-03 01:10 来源:北纬森教育

一、主动语态

  主语是谓语动作的使动方。也就是说谓语的动作源自主语,而施加于宾语。相反,被动语态中,主语是谓语动作的受动方,如果有宾语的,宾语往往是谓语动作的使动方。
 
  在语法机构上,主动语态和被动语态的区别主要在于,主动语态直接使用动词原形作为谓语,然后再在该动词原形的基础上施加时态和其他语法;而被动语态则使用系词+动词的过去分词作为谓语,各种时态和其他语法也施加在系词上。

二、被动语态

  英语中的被动语态使用得比汉语要多,要普遍,许多课本及考试乃至实际应用中都常常涉及到这个问题。一般说来,当强调动作承受者,不必说出执行者或含糊不清的执行者时,多用被动式。须注意的是,许多地方与汉语不同。注意那些汉语中没有"被……"的意思,英语却应该用被动态。还要注意,英语的被动态往往由"by"引出,而有用介词"by"的短语往往又不是被动态,而是系表结构。还有些特殊现象,如:known to man(人类......所知),on foot步行(美国人有时用by foot),in carraige(乘四轮马车)等等。还有假主动,真被动的十几个常用词的用法,以及so heavy to carry而不用so heavy to be carried 等习惯用法。有关这类情况,做到心中有数对全面掌握被动态,en211 准确解答习题非常关键,被动态必须涉及的是动词的各种时态变化的问题。英语的时态本来很复杂,怎样记住各自的被动形式呢? 首先要明确"将来进行无被动,现在完成进行同"。这两种时态无被动形式。
 
  另外,不及物动词带有同源宾语的动词,反身代词的动词和系动词都无被动形式。即便如此,还有不定式,动名词,分词,以及它们的复合结构)的被动态,再加上情态动词,助动词以及它们的疑问式和否定式从中掺杂,真是令人头痛,眼花缭乱。下面口诀就以动词do为例,即do did过去式done过去分词,以口诀形式总结各种时态的被动态,一定对你有所启示。
 
  被动语态的句子通常是以Be-Passive(即"be+过去分词")的形式来表达,但也可以Get-Passive(即"get+过去分词")的形式来表达,例如:He got punished today.著名学者周海中教授在论文《Get-Passive研究》中指出:Get-Passive是一种新兴的被动语态形式;相对来说它的使用还没有Be-Passive那么广泛,一般限于口语和非正式书面语;但它却有着用得愈来愈多的趋势,是一种生气蓬勃的语言现象。
 
  如果要特别强调动作或行为的执行者时,句子后面需接by~,译为“被(由)……”。
 
  1 被动语态的句型
 
  肯定句:主语+be +过去分词+(by~).
 
  否定句:主语+be not +过去分词+(by~).
 
  一般疑问句:Be +主语+过去分词+(by~)?
 
  特殊疑问句:疑问词+be +主语+过去分词+(by~)?
 
  被动语态的时态是由be的时态决定的,be是什么时态,全句就是什么时态,be动词后面的过去分词不变。
 
  一、 被动语态的用法:
 
  1. 一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词
 
  Our classroom is cleaned everyday.
 
  I am asked to study hard.
 
  Knives are used for cutting things.
 
  2. 一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词
 
  A new shop was built last year.
 
  Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.
 
  3. 一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词
 
  A new hospital will be built in our city.
 
  Many more trees will be planted next year.
 
  4. 现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词
 
  Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→
 
  My bike is being repaired by Tom now.
 
  They are planting trees over there. →
 
  Trees are being planted over there by them.
 
  5. 现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词
 
  This book has been translated into many languages.
 
  Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.
 
  6.过去进行时的被动语态构成:was/were + being + 及物动词的过去分词
 
  The boy was being operated on when his parents hurried to the hospital.
 
  The new road was being made.
 
  7.过去完成时的被动语态构成:had + been + 及物动词的过去分词
 
  The classroom hadn’t been cleaned before the teacher came.
 
  The tickets had been sold out berore I came to the cinema.
 
  8.将来完成时的被动语态构成:shall/will + have done
 
  They will have been married for 20 years by then.
 
  The project will have been completed before May.
 
  9.含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词
 
  Young trees must be watered often.
 
  Your mistakes should be corrected right now.
 
  The door may be locked inside.
 
  Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.
 
  二、 怎样把主动语态改成被动语态?
 
  把主动语态改为被动语态非常简单,可以遵循以下几个步骤:
 
  1. 先找出谓语动词;
 
  2. 再找出谓语动词后的宾语;
 
  3. 把宾语用作被动语态中的主语;
 
  4. 注意人称、时态和数的变化。
 
  例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.
 
  2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.
 
  3. He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far.
 
  4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow.
 
  5. Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now.
 
  6. You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave.
 
  三、 使用被动语态应注意的几个问题:
 
  1. 不及物动词无被动语态。
 
  What will happen in 100 years.
 
  The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
 
  2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。
 
  This pen writes well.
 
  This new book sells well.
 
  3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to ,但变为被动语态时,须加上to 。
 
  例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something
 
  see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something
 
  A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.
 
  The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
 
  4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。
 
  He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.
 
  He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
 
  My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
 
  5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。
 
  We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laugh at by us.
 
  He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.
 
  The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.</CA
 

虚拟语气

  语气是一种动词形式,用以表示说话者的意图或态度。虚拟语气表示所说的话只是一种主观的愿望、假设或建议等。虚拟语气可以用在非真实条件句主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句和定语从句中。
 

基本句型结构

  句子按其结构可分为简单句并列句复合句

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